In vitro, Evaluation the Effect of Trichoderma harzianum & Metarhizium anisopliae Fungi as Biocontrol Agents against Alternaria solani Fungus on Tomato in Gaza Strip

Al Saqqa, Nadia S. A (2018) In vitro, Evaluation the Effect of Trichoderma harzianum & Metarhizium anisopliae Fungi as Biocontrol Agents against Alternaria solani Fungus on Tomato in Gaza Strip. Masters thesis, الجامعة الإسلامية بغزة -عمادة البحث العلمي والدراسات العليا -كلية العلوم -ماجستير علوم الارض والبيئة.

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Abstract

Background: An early blight disease is a destructive disease of tomato caused by Alternaria solani fungus. A. solani is a pathogenic fungus causes major problems for many of Solanaceae family crops, especially in humid regions with (24-29ºC). Currently, the means of control this pathogen is generally by using chemical fungicides, Thus, application of chemical fungicides creates environmental problems such as contamination of groundwater, soil which threaten the environment and human health, and may cause serious diseases such as cancer. Objectives: the current study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma harzianum and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi in vitro conditions as biocontrol agents against Alternaria solani fungus which causes early blight disease on tomato crops in the Gaza strip. Problem statement: In the recent years, the environmental pollution caused by excessive use of chemical fungicide increased which lead to negative impact on human health and the environment. Methodology: A. solani was isolated from infected tomato leaves that showed typical early blight symptoms and then was cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium at 25± 2ºc. The identification of fungus at the genus level was carried out by using microscopic examination depending on the colony colour, shape, hyphae, conidia, conidiophores and arrangement of spores, in addition to genetically identified by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for )ITS( region. After that the antagonistic effect of both T.harzianum and M. anisopliae against A. solani was examined after 5 days of incubation under laboratory conditions. Their efficiency was also compared with the efficiency of chemical fungicides(Difenocnonazaole) in inhibiting the growth of A. solani. Result: The laboratory results showed a statistically significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in the growth of A. solani pathogen in the biologically treated groups by T. harzianum & M. anisoplea fungi compared with control. Where T. harzianum showed the highest inhibition (68.83-70.59%) while M. anisoplea recorded the lowest inhibition (16.66-16.77%). As well, chemically treated groups with Difenoconazole by using 0.5ml/L and 0.1ml/L concentrations showed a statistically significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in the growth of the pathogenic fungus compared with control. Where the inhibition ratio was (70-71.26%) and (33.33-41.86%) respectively. Also, The current study showed that there was no statistically significant difference (P≤ 0.05) between group treated with T. harzianum and the group treated with the chemical fungicide (Difenoconazole) with 0.5 ml/L concentration in the fifth day post treatment. Through the laboratory results of this study it became clear that T. harizanum more effective as biological control over the early blight than M. anisopliae .On the other hand, its effectiveness is similar to effectiveness chemical fungicide )Difenoconazole) when it is used for prevention from Early blight, but without adverse effect on human health and the environment. Conclusions: Our results concluded that T. harzianum had a statistically significant effect in inhibiting growth of A. solani by( 68.83-70.59%). So it can be used primarily as a preventive biological control at the beginning of agriculture, which will have a significant effect to reduce the use of chemical fungicides. In the case of infection during the plant growth stage, it can be used alternately with chemical fungicides. Which will clearly reducing the negative impact on human health and the environment. Keywords: Alternaria solani, Trichoderma harzianum, Metarhizium anisopliae, Biocontrol agents, Early blight, Difenoconazole, Gaza strip - Palestine

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology
Depositing User: أ. دارين علي أحمد حمد
Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2020 11:32
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2020 11:32
URI: http://scholar.alaqsa.edu.ps/id/eprint/2695

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